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The First Millenium

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Kings stay alive in 955.

Germany's King Otto the Great defeats the Magyars on his eastern frontier, halting their expansion and ending their threat to Germany.

Eadwig the Fair replaces his uncle as King of England and immediately gets into a conflict with Church officials. Kind-hearted but inept, he gives away about 5% of the land in England. So generous is he that he even gives a lot of land to the Catholic Church. Facing civil war from the angry Catholic Church, the nobles get him to agree to divide England with his brother. Fortunately for England, Eadwig dies after four years, and his brother quickly re-unites the kingdom.

Appointed by his father Alberic before he died last year, eighteen year old Pope John XII begins a Papacy that becomes a legend of evil. Horrified cardinals and bishops testified to personally observing his evil deeds. He murdered opponents, including bishops, called on pagan gods when playing dice, sold bishop offices (in one case to a ten year old) and was blatantly involved in sexual immorality.
With his many enemies eagerly seizing areas of the Papal States, he made a deal with Otto the Great, who restored the lands and recognized John as the only Pope. John, in turn, crowned Otto as Holy Roman Emperor. But with Otto gone back to Germany, Pope John quickly betrayed him, forming alliances with Otto’s enemies. Bad move, as Otto returned, imprisoned the King of Italy, and removed John as Pope. What happens next is so complicated that I need to wait a few years to explain it all.
 
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Pope John XII was a seventh generation descendant of Charlemagne on his mother's side. The infamous Pope Joan was (apparently) one of Pope John XII’s mistresses.
 
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Pope John XII was a seventh generation descendant of Charlemagne on his mother's side. The infamous Pope Joan was (apparently) one of Pope John XII’s mistresses.
Oh.

I understand that priests' children, instead of (so-called) 'Father', call them 'uncle', so maybe was she called 'aunt'?
 
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The Roman Empire became entwined within the papacy, as the two bloodlines (Emperors and the papacy) were now linked through Pope John XII. The papacy also became a dynasty during this time; and it is this period of time known as Pornocracy (prostitute rule), or Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the dark age).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pornocracy

The Pornocracy (rule of prostitutes) ended with Pope John XII in 963.

 
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The Roman Empire became entwined within the papacy, as the two bloodlines (Emperors and the papacy) were now linked through Pope John XII. The papacy also became a dynasty during this time; and it is this period of time known as Pornocracy (prostitute rule), or Saeculum obscurum (Latin: the dark age).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pornocracy

The Pornocracy (rule of prostitutes) ended with Pope John XII in 963.

Actually at the French Revolution a woman of questionable repute is supposed to have been installed in Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, as the so called goddess of reason.
 
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It's good to see us having some discussion on this thread. And now, on to 956!

With the death of his father, Hugh Capet inherits vast estates in Paris and other areas of France. The French king reluctantly recognizes Hugh as ruler of Paris, and Hugh continues to expand his powers and influence.

In Egypt, a major earthquake damages the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria. Completed in 280 BC and improved several times since, its light was visible 29 miles away. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it was ruined and out of use in 1480 when Egypt used its blocks to build a fort.
 
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Let's look at 957.

Civil war breaks out in England as Mercia and Cumberland rebel against the new king.

Srichandra, ruler of eastern Bengal, has been successfully expanding his kingdom in India. Although a Buddhist, he practices toleration, allowing Hinduism to thrive.

Olga the Beauty was regent for her son over Kiev, which was controlled by the Rus. She ruthlessly murdered her political opponents, massacring 5,000 in one day, destroying even villages that opposed her. But she converts to the Orthodox Church this year and eventually becomes a saint.
 
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958 looks really great! Well, not really.

After defeating rebel tribesmen, the Moslem kingdom of Fatima in northern Africa begins a rapid two-year series of wars, seizing most of northwestern Africa.

A smashing victory at Raban destroys Islam's threat to Byzantium's eastern frontier...for a long time.

In northwestern India, the King of Kashmir dies, and his widow, Didda, seizes the throne. For 45 years she will ruthlessly murder her opponents, but she prevents civil war. Kashmir goes through a peaceful and prosperous time with her on the throne.
 
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It's time for 959!

Sixteen year old Edgar the Peaceful becomes King of England when his brother dies. Reigning for sixteen years, he re-unifies England, doing it so well that it never dissolves again.

Romanus II becomes Byzantine Emperor. He lives a dissolute life while his wife successfully rules the Empire for the next four years.
 
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Welcome to 960!

In China, the Song Dynasty comes into power for the next three centuries. Controlling most of inner China, the Song Dynasty will provide another Golden Age of Chinese history. Scientific advances in rice cultivation will double the population, forcing the government to appoint lower-level political offices. The economy will usually be healthy, and art and science will flourish. Military technology will also flourish, as the Songs are surrounded by rival Chinese governments and foreign enemies to the north. They take a count and find that they have 378,000 men in their army.

For the next 300 years, when I refer to "China," I am referring to the Song Dynasty. Remember that other dynasties still hold parts of China, and some of them claim to be the "real" Chinese government.

Mieszko I begins his 31 year reign as Duke of Poland. A successful pagan warlord, he greatly expands Polish territory and turns Poland into a nation (His son becomes the first king.) A skilled diplomat, he uses diplomacy to establish his people safely in the midst of hostile nations, even making treaties with his enemies when doing so would benefit the Poles.

Edgar the Peaceful, England's new king, appoints Dunstan as Archbishop of Canterbury. Dunstan succeeds in reforming much of the corruption in the monasteries, but he is not too successful in enforcing celibacy.

Conflicting records tell us that an Ethiopian woman named Gudit seizes the throne, massacres the ruling family, ravages the countryside, destroys churches, and tears Ethiopia apart as she begins her forty year reign.

Moslems raid Asia Minor, but are annihilated in a Byzantine ambush as they return home with their loot.
 
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961 has now begun.

After 54 years of construction, the Chinese finish the Tiger Hill Pagoda. Unfortunately, half the foundation is in rock and half in soil, so now it is called "The Leaning Tower of China." But it still stands, er, leans, whatever.

In the southeastern Mediterranean Sea, the Byzantines complete their conquest of Crete, freeing it from the Moslems who have held it for 135 years.

Haakon the Good, King of Norway, is killed while suppressing a rebellion by relatives who want the throne. Norway then descends into several years of civil war.
 
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961 has now begun.

After 54 years of construction, the Chinese finish the Tiger Hill Pagoda. Unfortunately, half the foundation is in rock and half in soil, so now it is called "The Leaning Tower of China." But it still stands, er, leans, whatever.

In the southeastern Mediterranean Sea, the Byzantines complete their conquest of Crete, freeing it from the Moslems who have held it for 135 years.

Haakon the Good, King of Norway, is killed while suppressing a rebellion by relatives who want the throne. Norway then descends into several years of civil war.
Vince...I am glad I saw this thread because I have been posting on another one that mentions the millenium and did not want to de-rail from it. I cannot find anything in the Bible or scripture that talks about the millenium. Maybe I should go back and read all of the posts, but I am curious exactly what it means...thx.
 
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Good to hear from you, Born Again. This thread describes only the first millennium since the birth of Christ. It does not deal with the Millennium in the Bible.

However, in Revelation 20, the phrase "thousand years" occurs six times in the first seven verses. The passage talks twice about when the thousand years are ended. I do not see how God could make it any clearer that the "thousand years" means "thousand years," and it is to be taken literally.
 
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On to the year 962!

Having absorbed northern Italy into the German Empire, Otto I invades the rest of Italy. He reaches Rome, where the Pope crowns him King of Italy, Germany, and of the Holy Roman Empire. This time it works, for Otto’s kingdom becomes the Holy Roman Empire. Otto had vigorously supported the Catholic Church, receiving unifying support, manpower, and money in return. However, Pope John XII refuse to obey Emperor Otto's command that the Pope take an oath of allegiance to the Emperor.

Mark Twain quipped that the Holy Roman Empire wasn't holy, Roman, or an empire. But the Catholic Church is still the official religion of the Roman Empire, and the Pope declared that the Holy Roman Emperor really was the ruler of the Western Roman Empire (a statement that historians do not believe). Claiming to be the Roman Empire gave the German Emperor claim to the right to invade and conquer neighboring kingdoms, because the Roman Empire had never relinquished its claims to those lands. And the Catholic Church authorized the Holy Roman Empire to seize pagan areas and force them to convert.

And with all due respect to Mr. Twain, it really was an empire. It was actually a German empire, but it did conquer and rule other nations.

Ever heard of Aleppo? It's the largest city in Syria, and the Byzantines capture it this year.
 
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Welcome to 963.

Located in eastern Europe, Kiev is now the capital of Ukrainia. But this year, it begins expanding, hitting enemies and neighbors and growing rapidly.

The nation of Luxembourg unofficially begins with construction of a castle. It will eventually grow into a heavily-fortified walled town that will be ruled by various nations and finally become independent in 1944.

The Byzantine Emperor is poisoned by his wife, and she quickly marries the general who has been beating the Moslems on every front. But while Byzantium's military successes will continue, there is enough discontent at home that the new Emperor is forced to resign after six years. Shortly afterwards, he is murdered by his wife.

It's a great year for China. Two Chinese states voluntarily rejoin, and two more are swiftly conquered. The Emperor begins civil-service examinations for government offices, refusing to appoint anyone who is not competent.

The Holy Roman Empire defeats Poland and forces them to pay tribute. And then, tired of problems with Pope John XII, Holy Roman Emperor Otto removes him by force in December. Otto then appoints a layman as Pope Leo VIII.
 
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There's a whole lot more in 964.

Different sources contradict in the order of events. In December of last year, the Holy Roman Empire had deposed Pope John XII. Otto installs Leo VIII as Pope, against the wishes of the Roman people. But Pope John XII invades Rome and re-instates himself. But Pope John dies suddenly, and the Roman people install Pope Benedict V. But Otto deposes Pope Benedict after one month, restoring Pope Leo. But Leo dies next year. Okay, got it? At the end of the year, Leo VIII is Pope.
 
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965 is here.

A compromise candidate whom nobody likes, John XIII begins his seven year reign as Pope. Exiled one time but restored by force, he works with Otto to establish Catholic bishoprics in southern Italy, thus weakening the power of the Orthodox Church there. Remember that "Italy" is only the northern part of the Italian Peninsula, and it is now part of the Holy Roman Empire. The Pope rules the central part, but he is under the control of the HRE. The southern part is still part of the Byzantine Empire, although parts have broken off to form independent states.

Remember the Khazars? Their eastern European kingdom made little advancement because they were constantly at war with their Moslem neighbors. But this year, the Rus capture a major Khazar city in modern Russia, and the Khazars never get it back.

The Byzantines win two more major victories over the Moslems, recapturing more of their former territory in western Asia.
 
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Welcome to 966 AD!

Mieszko I, Duke of Poland, converts to Catholicism and Poland (which technically is not yet a nation) becomes Christian. Mieszko I was probably influenced by his wife to convert, but was more likely attempting to prevent invasions from neighboring Catholic states that were allowed to invade pagan nations for the purpose of converting them.
 
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Unlike last year, 967 is pretty busy.

In north Africa, the Fatimids begin a successful military campaign that expands their kingdom towards the west.

The Rus capture the capital of the tottering Khazar Empire.

At this time, Ireland consists of nine kingdoms. Connacht, located in the center of the west coast, is the second-largest. They get a new king, but little is known about him. Connacht will survive for another five centuries.

In Norway, seven year old Olaf Tryggvason is sold into slavery. Give him another 28 years, though, and he'll become King.

Eighteen year old Reizei becomes Japan's new Emperor. He abdicates to his son two years later and spends 44 years in retirement. The problem? Reizei was insane.

Izzal-Dawla begins his eleven year reign over Iraq. To put it bluntly, the man gives new meaning to the word "incompetent." He loses battles, alienates his allies, turns his Turkish allies into enemies, gets invaded by Byzantines and different Moslem groups that had been living peacefully with Iraq, breaks peace treaties, and is finally executed.
 
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