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WHY CALVINISM IS UNBIBLICAL - UNCONDITIONAL ELECTION

wondering

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This Calvinist teaching states that God chose, before the foundation of the world, who would go to heaven and who would go to hell.
IOW, man is predestined by God as to his life after death and how he will spend eternity.
And this, based on nothing - except what pleases God.
How God picks a person's destiny is a mystery and we are not allowed to know how to save ourselves because, simply,
we cannot do anything to save ourselves - it is purely a decision made by God with no input from individuals.

By predestination we mean the eternal decree of God, by which he determined with himself whatever he wished to happen with regard to every man. All are not created on equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or other of these ends, we say that he has been predestinated to life or to death.

Source: The Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin
Book 3 Chapter 21 Paragraph 5



I view this teaching as not only non-biblical, but heretical at the least and blasphemous at the most.
Blasphemous because characteristics are attributed to God that do not belong to a God of love....
and the N.T. teaches us that God IS love...1 John 4:8
It also teaches us that God is merciful and just.

1 John 4:8 NLT
But anyone who does not love does not know God, for God is love.

Ephesians 2:4-5 NLT
But God is so rich in mercy, and he loved us so much, 5 that even though we were dead because of our sins, he gave us life when he raised Christ from the dead.

Job 34:12 NLT
Truly, God will not do wrong.
The Almighty will not twist justice.



So we know that God is love
God is merciful
God is just and practices justice

What is justice? Giving to each person what he deserves.
Does calvinism teach that God will give to each person what he deserves?
NO.
Does calvinism teach that God is merciful?
NO.
Does calvinism teach that God is love?
NO.

It presents to us, instead, a different God....
indeed, a different gospel.
Calvinist teaching does not offer good news to God's creatures....
a gospel is not even necessary since man will have no control at all over his final destiny but must adhere to what God has predestined for him.
Does this sound like the God of the N.T.?

Jesus is a representation of God Father.
Jesus died for humanity showing great love.
Surely if He represents God...then we can be sure that God is a God of love.
And a just God who will give to each person according to the light that person has received and his response to it.

The N.T. tells us that we can, of our own free will, choose to serve God and be a disciple of Jesus.
John 3:16 NLT Jesus taught:
“For this is how God loved the world: He gave his one and only Son, so that everyone who believes in him will not perish but have eternal life."

This is a prescriptive command. It tells us what we must do to be saved.
It is NOT descriptive --- a description of a saved person.


Acts 16:30-31 NLT
30Then he brought them out and asked, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?”
31 They replied, “Believe in the Lord Jesus and you will be saved,


Paul does not tell the jailer he cannot do anything to acquire salvation...
Paul tells the jailer to believe in Jesus and he will be saved.
Calvinists must believe Paul made a mistake.



Romans 6:23 NLT
23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life through Christ Jesus our Lord.


Salvation is a free gift from God.
Through Jesus Christ...through our belief in Him as Jesus Himself stated in John 3:16
All that is necessary is to receive that gift....
(receiving a gift is not a work - another incorrect teaching of calvinism)


Calvin did not spend any time with Jesus...
but John the Apostle did and this is what he wrote in his gospel:

John 1:12 NLT
12 But to all who believed him and accepted him, he gave the right to become children of God.


Not through our will, or works....
but through faith it is gifted to us to be children of God.
God Almighty that has gifted us salvation through faith, receives all the merit and credit for our salvation
for having planned this from the beginning of time.


God wishes to save all men (1 Timothy 2:4) and has let us know through His Word what we must
do to be saved. Have faith in Him.

THIS is a God of love.
 

Episcopius

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A thousand years before Calvin - Augustine proposed a Double Predestination. The ancient church saw Augustine vs Pelagius, and affirmed neither one. Augustine USUALLY WON in many things - but not this double predestination horror.

So in Calvin's time - he regurgitated the idea that people are doomed to eternity in hell for no reason but God's "pleasure" - this Puppet-Master god of Calvinism blows out the hot breath of Beelzebub on individuals regardless of what they do, believe or think - and there is nothing they can do about it.

They can DO nothing because they ARE nothing - humans are NOTHINGS under this Calvinism horror - they are automatons, zeroes...
 

JLB

Jesus is the Way, the Truth and the Life
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This Calvinist teaching states that God chose, before the foundation of the world, who would go to heaven and who would go to hell.
IOW, man is predestined by God as to his life after death and how he will spend eternity.
And this, based on nothing - except what pleases God.
How God picks a person's destiny is a mystery and we are not allowed to know how to save ourselves because, simply,
we cannot do anything to save ourselves - it is purely a decision made by God with no input from individuals.

By predestination we mean the eternal decree of God, by which he determined with himself whatever he wished to happen with regard to every man. All are not created on equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or other of these ends, we say that he has been predestinated to life or to death.

Source: The Institutes of the Christian Religion
John Calvin
Book 3 Chapter 21 Paragraph 5



I view this teaching as not only non-biblical, but heretical at the least and blasphemous at the most.
Blasphemous because characteristics are attributed to God that do not belong to a God of love....
and the N.T. teaches us that God IS love...1 John 4:8
It also teaches us that God is merciful and just.

1 John 4:8 NLT
But anyone who does not love does not know God, for God is love.

Ephesians 2:4-5 NLT
But God is so rich in mercy, and he loved us so much, 5 that even though we were dead because of our sins, he gave us life when he raised Christ from the dead.

Job 34:12 NLT
Truly, God will not do wrong.
The Almighty will not twist justice.



So we know that God is love
God is merciful
God is just and practices justice

What is justice? Giving to each person what he deserves.
Does calvinism teach that God will give to each person what he deserves?
NO.
Does calvinism teach that God is merciful?
NO.
Does calvinism teach that God is love?
NO.

It presents to us, instead, a different God....
indeed, a different gospel.
Calvinist teaching does not offer good news to God's creatures....
a gospel is not even necessary since man will have no control at all over his final destiny but must adhere to what God has predestined for him.
Does this sound like the God of the N.T.?

Jesus is a representation of God Father.
Jesus died for humanity showing great love.
Surely if He represents God...then we can be sure that God is a God of love.
And a just God who will give to each person according to the light that person has received and his response to it.

The N.T. tells us that we can, of our own free will, choose to serve God and be a disciple of Jesus.
John 3:16 NLT Jesus taught:
“For this is how God loved the world: He gave his one and only Son, so that everyone who believes in him will not perish but have eternal life."

This is a prescriptive command. It tells us what we must do to be saved.
It is NOT descriptive --- a description of a saved person.


Acts 16:30-31 NLT
30Then he brought them out and asked, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?”
31 They replied, “Believe in the Lord Jesus and you will be saved,


Paul does not tell the jailer he cannot do anything to acquire salvation...
Paul tells the jailer to believe in Jesus and he will be saved.
Calvinists must believe Paul made a mistake.



Romans 6:23 NLT
23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life through Christ Jesus our Lord.


Salvation is a free gift from God.
Through Jesus Christ...through our belief in Him as Jesus Himself stated in John 3:16
All that is necessary is to receive that gift....
(receiving a gift is not a work - another incorrect teaching of calvinism)


Calvin did not spend any time with Jesus...
but John the Apostle did and this is what he wrote in his gospel:

John 1:12 NLT
12 But to all who believed him and accepted him, he gave the right to become children of God.


Not through our will, or works....
but through faith it is gifted to us to be children of God.
God Almighty that has gifted us salvation through faith, receives all the merit and credit for our salvation
for having planned this from the beginning of time.


God wishes to save all men (1 Timothy 2:4) and has let us know through His Word what we must
do to be saved. Have faith in Him.

THIS is a God of love.

Calvinism is the teachings of man, at best.


False Doctrine.


This is how the fully indoctrinated Calvinist views John 3:16


For God so loved the world elect that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in is predestined by Him should not perish but have everlasting life. Calvinism 3:16


This is the classic example of a “stronghold“ that is constructed into a person’s belief system, by man (at best) whereby they exalt the indoctrination of Calvinism against the knowledge (scripture) from God.
See 2 Corinthians 10:4-6


They read scripture through the “eyes” of a preconceived and fully developed idea that is not from Christ.






JLB
 
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A thousand years before Calvin - Augustine proposed a Double Predestination. The ancient church saw Augustine vs Pelagius, and affirmed neither one. Augustine USUALLY WON in many things - but not this double predestination horror.

So in Calvin's time - he regurgitated the idea that people are doomed to eternity in hell for no reason but God's "pleasure" - this Puppet-Master god of Calvinism blows out the hot breath of Beelzebub on individuals regardless of what they do, believe or think - and there is nothing they can do about it.

They can DO nothing because they ARE nothing - humans are NOTHINGS under this Calvinism horror - they are automatons, zeroes...
I have read Calvin's commentary on John's Gospel and 1 John. I am currently reading through his commentary on 1 Corinthians. I looked carefully for the predestination doctrine but couldn't find it. But I saw very clearly where he said that all those who believe the Gospel and turn to Christ are the elect, and those who reject the Gospel are reprobate. From what I see from his writing, he puts believing the Gospel and embracing Christ as Saviour as a higher priority to determining who is elect and who is reprobate.

Of course, like many who cherry pick random verses from the Bible out of context and form their presumptive opinions on them, those who oppose Calvin do exactly the same. They cherry pick one statement and say that because of that one statement, Calvin is of the devil.

But when I read through his commentaries and see what he says in context, then I get a better view on why he made his statement about election and reprobation.

Calvin was a pioneer in theology, and provided an alternative to Papal doctrine which had held the Church in bondage for the previous 1000 years. As a pioneer, he emphasized justification by faith along with holiness of life, and instead of the universalism that was taught by the Papists, he made a distinction between the elect and the reprobate on the basis of belief in the true Gospel of Christ, rather than allegiance to the Papist church.

To understand Calvin, we have to understand the religiosity of the times in which he lived. He was putting himself in harm's way by writing his Institutes and commentaries, and the first three graduates of his Bible college were immediately put to death by the Papal authorities. He was in constant threat to his life all through his life and ministry.

So, it's all very well to have our theology in our safe societies when we can give our theological opinions without the fear that we are going to be hauled off to prison or put to death because we said and wrote material in opposition to the "established" church.
 

JLB

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Calvin is of the devil.

This is something I myself have yet to hear from anyone;
“Calvin is of the devil”

The Teachings of Calvinism, as there are promoted today, is false doctrine. This certainly doesn’t mean John Calvin is of the devil, as that is for his Judge, Jesus Christ to decide.


I suspect most of what Calvinist‘s promote today, is a mixture of what “they interpret” Mr Calvin to have taught, and what they personally believe.


I would encourage you to study what Jesus Christ taught us through His Apostles, then once you yourself know the truth, you will be equipped to discern the counterfeit.




JLB
 
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Walpole

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I have read Calvin's commentary on John's Gospel and 1 John. I am currently reading through his commentary on 1 Corinthians. I looked carefully for the predestination doctrine but couldn't find it. But I saw very clearly where he said that all those who believe the Gospel and turn to Christ are the elect, and those who reject the Gospel are reprobate. From what I see from his writing, he puts believing the Gospel and embracing Christ as Saviour as a higher priority to determining who is elect and who is reprobate.

Of course, like many who cherry pick random verses from the Bible out of context and form their presumptive opinions on them, those who oppose Calvin do exactly the same. They cherry pick one statement and say that because of that one statement, Calvin is of the devil.

But when I read through his commentaries and see what he says in context, then I get a better view on why he made his statement about election and reprobation.

Calvin was a pioneer in theology, and provided an alternative to Papal doctrine which had held the Church in bondage for the previous 1000 years. As a pioneer, he emphasized justification by faith along with holiness of life, and instead of the universalism that was taught by the Papists, he made a distinction between the elect and the reprobate on the basis of belief in the true Gospel of Christ, rather than allegiance to the Papist church.

To understand Calvin, we have to understand the religiosity of the times in which he lived. He was putting himself in harm's way by writing his Institutes and commentaries, and the first three graduates of his Bible college were immediately put to death by the Papal authorities. He was in constant threat to his life all through his life and ministry.

So, it's all very well to have our theology in our safe societies when we can give our theological opinions without the fear that we are going to be hauled off to prison or put to death because we said and wrote material in opposition to the "established" church.

Read Calvin's Institutes. For example...

“Now, since the arrangement of all things is in the hand of God, since to him belongs the disposal of life and death, he arranges all things by his sovereign counsel, in such a way that individuals are born, who are doomed from the womb to certain death, and are to glorify him by their destruction.” (John Calvin, Institutes, 3.23.6)


“By predestination we mean the eternal decree of God, by which he determined with himself whatever he wished to happen with regard to every man. All are not created on equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or other of these ends, we say that he has been predestinated to life or to death.” (Ibid, 3.21.5)


“We say, then, that Scripture clearly proves this much, that God by his eternal and immutable counsel determined once for all those whom it was his pleasure one day to admit to salvation, and those whom, on the other hand, it was his pleasure to doom to destruction.” (Ibid, 3:21.6)


Still can't see his doctrine of predestination?


Furthermore, Calvin was a persecutor! When he returned to Geneva in 1541, his Ecclesiastical Ordinances were approved for usage and established The Consistory, which was a church court responsible for the discipline of the citizens of Geneva. (Here are records of The Consistory from 1542-1544 —> https://www.amazon.com/Registers-Consistory-Geneva-Time-Calvin/dp/0802846181/ref=pd_rhf_ee_s_t_2)

John Calvin was its de-facto head and as such had tremendous influence over the city magistrates, particularly when it came to imposing sentences for those who disagreed with him theologically. Aside from the most notable examples such as Jaques Gruet and Michael Servetus, Calvin oversaw the imprisonment and execution of dozens and dozens of those he opposed. Here is the Protestant (Reformed) theologian and scholar Philip Schaff…

“The official acts of the Council from 1541 to 1559 exhibit a dark chapter of censures, fines, imprisonments, and executions. During the ravages of the pestilence in 1545 more than twenty men and women were burnt alive for witchcraft, and a wicked conspiracy to spread the horrible disease. From 1542 to 1546 fifty-eight judgments of death and seventy-six decrees of banishments were passed. During the years 1558 and 1559 the cases of various punishments for all sorts of offenses amounted to four hundred and fourteen — a very large proportion for a population of 20,000.” (Source


Presenting Calvin as an altar boy is simply fake news.
 
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This is something I myself have yet to hear from anyone;
“Calvin is of the devil”

The Teachings of Calvinism, as there are promoted today, is false doctrine. This certainly doesn’t mean John Calvin is of the devil, as that is for his Judge, Jesus Christ to decide.


I suspect most of what Calvinist‘s promote today, is a mixture of what “they interpret” Mr Calvin to have taught, and what they personally believe.


I would encourage you to study what Jesus Christ taught us through His Apostles, then once you yourself know the truth, you will be equipped to discern the counterfeit.




JLB
I hope by reading your abbreviated quote that I said that Calvin was of the devil! :cool2

Seeing that I actually hold an M.Div, that some time over the three years I worked at it I could have studied Christology, which is basically what Jesus taught his disciples... Also, having studied the Bible fairly comprehensively over the last 53 years, I guess I have sort of picked up something about that as well.

Yeah...I think I know what Jesus taught His disciples.

Sorry for taking Le Pis, but I just couldn't help it! :approve

The one thing I observed about Calvin, and the English Puritan writers, is that they are Christ-centred and passionate about putting their full faith and trust in Christ to have any hope of salvation. That's good enough for me.
 
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Read Calvin's Institutes. For example...

“Now, since the arrangement of all things is in the hand of God, since to him belongs the disposal of life and death, he arranges all things by his sovereign counsel, in such a way that individuals are born, who are doomed from the womb to certain death, and are to glorify him by their destruction.” (John Calvin, Institutes, 3.23.6)


“By predestination we mean the eternal decree of God, by which he determined with himself whatever he wished to happen with regard to every man. All are not created on equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or other of these ends, we say that he has been predestinated to life or to death.” (Ibid, 3.21.5)


“We say, then, that Scripture clearly proves this much, that God by his eternal and immutable counsel determined once for all those whom it was his pleasure one day to admit to salvation, and those whom, on the other hand, it was his pleasure to doom to destruction.” (Ibid, 3:21.6)


Still can't see his doctrine of predestination?


Furthermore, Calvin was a persecutor! When he returned to Geneva in 1541, his Ecclesiastical Ordinances were approved for usage and established The Consistory, which was a church court responsible for the discipline of the citizens of Geneva. (Here are records of The Consistory from 1542-1544 —> https://www.amazon.com/Registers-Consistory-Geneva-Time-Calvin/dp/0802846181/ref=pd_rhf_ee_s_t_2)

John Calvin was its de-facto head and as such had tremendous influence over the city magistrates, particularly when it came to imposing sentences for those who disagreed with him theologically. Aside from the most notable examples such as Jaques Gruet and Michael Servetus, Calvin oversaw the imprisonment and execution of dozens and dozens of those he opposed. Here is the Protestant (Reformed) theologian and scholar Philip Schaff…

“The official acts of the Council from 1541 to 1559 exhibit a dark chapter of censures, fines, imprisonments, and executions. During the ravages of the pestilence in 1545 more than twenty men and women were burnt alive for witchcraft, and a wicked conspiracy to spread the horrible disease. From 1542 to 1546 fifty-eight judgments of death and seventy-six decrees of banishments were passed. During the years 1558 and 1559 the cases of various punishments for all sorts of offenses amounted to four hundred and fourteen — a very large proportion for a population of 20,000.” (Source


Presenting Calvin as an altar boy is simply fake news.
Calvin was just a man of his times. True, he was intolerant of those who did not go along with him. Goodness me, he was just a mere mortal with faults and failings like all the rest of us.

The New England Puritans murdered women falsely accused of being witches. Also, the early Quakers had to have their own protected part of the country to prevent them being killed by the religious people who viewed them as heretics. And I wonder how many Mormons were murdered by solid, upright, "Christian" citizens. And what about the African Americans in the Southern States brutally lynched by good, upright, white church-goers. And what about the righteous "Christians" who went into an African American community and burned the whole area of the city to the ground and butchered hundreds of men, women, and children?

So, our good mate Calvin might have influenced the magistrates of his time to condemn a few "heretics" to death in his time, but the "good Christian" white Americans, murdered and lynched many more who did not fit into their accepted society!

So come on! Point the finger at someone with faults like all the rest of us, and you have three pointing right back at yourself!
 

Walpole

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Calvin was just a man of his times. True, he was intolerant of those who did not go along with him. Goodness me, he was just a mere mortal with faults and failings like all the rest of us.

The New England Puritans murdered women falsely accused of being witches. Also, the early Quakers had to have their own protected part of the country to prevent them being killed by the religious people who viewed them as heretics. And I wonder how many Mormons were murdered by solid, upright, "Christian" citizens. And what about the African Americans in the Southern States brutally lynched by good, upright, white church-goers. And what about the righteous "Christians" who went into an African American community and burned the whole area of the city to the ground and butchered hundreds of men, women, and children?

So, our good mate Calvin might have influenced the magistrates of his time to condemn a few "heretics" to death in his time, but the "good Christian" white Americans, murdered and lynched many more who did not fit into their accepted society!

So come on! Point the finger at someone with faults like all the rest of us, and you have three pointing right back at yourself!
Certainly not the refutation was I was expecting...

You might want to read this ----> https://yandoo.wordpress.com/2015/08/13/moral-equivalence/
 

wondering

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Calvin was just a man of his times. True, he was intolerant of those who did not go along with him. Goodness me, he was just a mere mortal with faults and failings like all the rest of us.

The New England Puritans murdered women falsely accused of being witches. Also, the early Quakers had to have their own protected part of the country to prevent them being killed by the religious people who viewed them as heretics. And I wonder how many Mormons were murdered by solid, upright, "Christian" citizens. And what about the African Americans in the Southern States brutally lynched by good, upright, white church-goers. And what about the righteous "Christians" who went into an African American community and burned the whole area of the city to the ground and butchered hundreds of men, women, and children?

So, our good mate Calvin might have influenced the magistrates of his time to condemn a few "heretics" to death in his time, but the "good Christian" white Americans, murdered and lynched many more who did not fit into their accepted society!

So come on! Point the finger at someone with faults like all the rest of us, and you have three pointing right back at yourself!
1. 2 wrongs do not make right.
2. None of those you mentioned started a church that taught the gospel/Jesus/salvation.
 

JLB

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The one thing I observed about Calvin, and the English Puritan writers, is that they are Christ-centred and passionate about putting their full faith and trust in Christ to have any hope of salvation. That's good enough for me.

That seems much different than the “Calvinism” we have being promoted here at the Forum, which says we are elected for salvation by God n which He Sovereignly causes us to be born again, and later on when we hear the Gospel, we now have the ability to be saved.


Is this what you believe?




JLB
 
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That seems much different than the “Calvinism” we have being promoted here at the Forum, which says we are elected for salvation by God n which He Sovereignly causes us to be born again, and later on when we hear the Gospel, we now have the ability to be saved.


Is this what you believe?




JLB
I have taken the trouble of actually reading Calvin, and his questionable views on elections and predestination are just a very tiny bit of all the other faith-building things that he wrote.

Many of the opposing posts criticising Calvinists are making majors out of minors, and ignoring the bulk of the Christ-centred material that he wrote.
 

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I have taken the trouble of actually reading Calvin, and his questionable views on elections and predestination are just a very tiny bit of all the other faith-building things that he wrote.

Many of the opposing posts criticising Calvinists are making majors out of minors, and ignoring the bulk of the Christ-centred material that he wrote.
I'm sorry but it's hard to believe you have actually read Calvin when you didn't even know he taught and wrote (quite extensively) about predestination. His belief in predestination formed the basis of his entire theological system.
 

Walpole

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1. 2 wrongs do not make right.
2. None of those you mentioned started a church that taught the gospel/Jesus/salvation.
I was quite surprised to see someone dismiss Calvin's atrocities because atrocities were committed nearly two centuries later by Puritans in America and nearly four centuries later by Southerners in America.

Do Calvin's atrocities require historical context? Absolutely. But was Calvin an altar boy who was in harm's way in Geneva? Certainly not, as it was he who put others in harm's way.
 

wondering

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I have taken the trouble of actually reading Calvin, and his questionable views on elections and predestination are just a very tiny bit of all the other faith-building things that he wrote.

Many of the opposing posts criticising Calvinists are making majors out of minors, and ignoring the bulk of the Christ-centred material that he wrote.
I've read Calvin too.
Many of his commentaries are really good.

But one cannot read book 3 and come away with what you believe about this man.

Consider this:
Calvin comes to his conclusions by reading Augustine. Augustine was Catholic. The CC does not agree with Calvin. I just find this interesting.

I'd like to add that Augustine changed some doctrine later on in his life, maybe his gnostic manechaen beliefs influenced him, this happened 400 years after Jesus died and 300 years after John wrote Revelation, and John never mentioned predestination or the absence of free will,, ditto for the other writers.

Did Augustine and Calvin perceive something in scripture that no one else did?

Did they understand something even the Apostles missed after spending years with Jesus....

I think not.
 

wondering

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I was quite surprised to see someone dismiss Calvin's atrocities because atrocities were committed nearly two centuries later by Puritans in America and nearly four centuries later by Southerners in America.

Do Calvin's atrocities require historical context? Absolutely. But was Calvin an altar boy who was in harm's way in Geneva? Certainly not, as it was he who put others in harm's way.
Agreed.
He could have stopped the death of Servetus, but was happy to see him disappear from the scene.

He was a repressed and severe person.
I don't see the love of Christ reflected in him.
 
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I'm sorry but it's hard to believe you have actually read Calvin when you didn't even know he taught and wrote (quite extensively) about predestination. His belief in predestination formed the basis of his entire theological system.
The trouble is that when one reads something through the wrong end of the theological telescope, all they see is the one part they disagree with and not see the whole breadth of sound doctrine that is also there. But then if one subscribes to Papist tradition, then I can understand the opposition to Calvin's theology.
 
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Mar 17, 2021
I've read Calvin too.
Many of his commentaries are really good.

But one cannot read book 3 and come away with what you believe about this man.

Consider this:
Calvin comes to his conclusions by reading Augustine. Augustine was Catholic. The CC does not agree with Calvin. I just find this interesting.

I'd like to add that Augustine changed some doctrine later on in his life, maybe his gnostic manechaen beliefs influenced him, this happened 400 years after Jesus died and 300 years after John wrote Revelation, and John never mentioned predestination or the absence of free will,, ditto for the other writers.

Did Augustine and Calvin perceive something in scripture that no one else did?

Did they understand something even the Apostles missed after spending years with Jesus....

I think not.
Although I think that Calvin is a very sound theologian in most respects, he had his faults. After all, Calvin wasn't crucified for us was he? The only person without fault is the One who was crucified for us and rose again from the dead.
 
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